Publications

This is a searchable catalogue of the College's most recent books, book chapters, journal articles and working papers. The ANU College of Law also publishes a Research Paper Series on SSRN.

From Oxymoron to Intersection: An Epidemiology of Legal Research

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This paper surveys legal research in Australia. Using both theoretical and empirical work, it argues for a significant shift towards humanistic, theoretical, and interdisciplinary scholarship in law and explores the implications for legal research and for postgraduate supervision of this shift.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

EEO in a Neo-Liberal Climate

Author(s): Margaret Thornton

This paper interrogates the ways in which different meanings of equality and inequality are produced within political and legal discourses. With particular regard to the Australian experience, the paper considers the significance of the disappearance of affirmative action (AA) from the equality lexicon with the repeal of the federal AA legislation and its replacement with the equal opportunity (EO) for women in the workplace legislation. Even as this change was being implemented, EO was already being superseded in favor of ‘diversity’. It is argued that the linguistic changes signal a shift to the right of the political spectrum which emit deeply conservative and regressive messages regarding the gendered character of the workplace. Illustrations are drawn from the dissonant relationship between women and authority.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CLAH

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Gender, Legal Education, The Legal Profession

International Citizenship: The Future of Nationality in a Globalised World

Author(s): Kim Rubenstein

This article attempts to identify the consequences for "nationality" in a world where "sovereignty" is challenged by the process of globalization. It builds upon Kim Rubenstein's chapter Citizenship in a Borderless World in A Anghie and G Sturgess (eds) LEGAL VISIONS OF THE 21ST CENTURY: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF JUDGE CHRISTOPHER WEERAMANTRY (Kluwer Law, 1998) and responds to the feature article Citizenship Denationalized by Linda Bosniak in the same Spring 2000 edition of the Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies.

The piece begins by defining "nationality" and "globalization". It distinguishes "citizenship" and "nationality" in a technical legal sense and considers citizenship and globalization as multifaceted concepts. It also highlights that there is an inherent tension in the development of citizenship for the citizenship project is about the expansion of equality among citizens, however, as equality is based upon membership, citizenship status forms the basis of an exclusive politics and identity. The article then concentrates on some tensions endemic to nationality, particularly in a globalized world. It does so by looking at nationality's functionality as a legal and social tool, concentrating upon various treaties and agreements and the international case law dealing with nationality. The case law analysis is divided into the "Standing Cases" and the "Human Rights Cases". Finally, the article concludes by arguing that the concept of effective nationality facilitates a theoretical (if not yet a practical) entry point for the acknowledgment of layered and/or fragmented nationality appropriate to the circumstances of our participation in a given national, supranational, regional or even non-territorial community.This puts nationality more in line with a "rights" -based individualized focus for international law rather than a sovereignty-based one. It is where the progressive project of citizenship meets nationality, melding, strengthening and integrating them as one and the same tool for building justice in a new era.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CLAH

Research theme: Administrative Law, Constitutional Law and Theory, Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Gender, Legal History and Ethnology, Migration and Movement of Peoples

Mandatory Sentences and The Constitution: Discretion, Responsibility, and Judicial Process

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This article argues that mandatory sentences are unconstitutional under Australian law. The constitutional challenge most likely to succeed is not based on the practical severity or otherwise of the law, but instead based on an argument of incompatibility with the judicial process. This is an argument which has only been clarified since the High Court’s decision in Kable v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW), itself decided long after Palling. The real issue is not the existence of prosecutorial discretion but the striking absence of any countervailing judicial discretion. This balancing discretion is central to the idea of judicial process as we understand it. In the normal course of events, if a prosecutor decides to use his or her discretion to pursue an essentially trivial matter, the Court may refuse to impose a fine, or suspend the sentence, or discharge the matter. Undoubtedly there are limits to these powers in some legislation, but these limits do not completely eliminate judicial discretion although they may constrain it. More specifically, we argue that mandatory sentencing provisions require courts to act in a way which is incompatible with the obligation to act judicially. We examine the evolution of what we call the ‘doctrine of incompatibility’ in an effort to give more concrete meaning to the idea of acting in accordance with the judicial process. Our purpose in this article is not to comprehensively define what constitutes the judicial process. Rather, we argue that the judicial process at least requires that those who preside over the process act judicially, and we seek to explore what it means to act judicially. We contend that the act of judgment must have integrity and independence, secured at the very least by procedural fairness, and arguably, by equal justice. Moreover, the act of judgment must involve some degree of independent judicial discretion in determining sentence. Some element of genuine judicial discretion is necessary in legitimating the judicial role, and thus in maintaining public confidence in the courts. The history of the English, and later the Australian common law cannot be read as suggesting that the legislature enjoys unlimited power to completely eliminate judicial discretion in imposition of punishment.

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Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

Dealing with Mass Atrocities and Ethnic Violence: Can Alternative Forms of Justice Be Effective?

Author(s): Phillip Drew

This paper was originally published in the Canadian Access to Justice Network. One of the first articles written on the subject of Gacaca, it was awarded the Prize for Alternative Dispute Resolution by the Minister for Justice of Canada in 2000.

In the paper, Drew explores the troubles in Rwanda as an example of the difficulties that confront countries as they transition from ethnic violence into a post-conlict and post-genocide framework. Specifically, how can they acknowledge and deal with past wrongs, especially in ways that offer hope for social rebuilding and reconciliation? Drew summarizes the genocidal terror that wracked Rwanda in 1994 and the various post-conflict efforts (national and international) to illuminate the wrongs committed and hold perpetrators accountable. His discussion includes aspects of ethnicity, culture, and legal traditions and developments in Rwanda that contributed to the violence and to complexities in the post-terror period in dealing with perpetrators and victims of the violence. Significant attention is given to a recommendation from a National Reconciliation Commission that Rwanda adopt the traditional Gacaca – a form of mediation performed by a village council of elders to promote justice and reconciliation at the communal level.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Legal Education, Military & Security Law

Et Lex Perpetua: Dying Declarations and Mozart’s Requiem

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This essay presents a joint history of music and society in relation to legal change particularly in the law of evidence, around 1750. the paper argues that the dramatic changes in both fields reflected similar social transformations which together changed their normative structure and assumptions, their relationship to text, interpretation, and authenticity, and their affective, instrumental, and normative ambitions. The history of music and the history of law are imbricated and entwined. Mozart's Requiem and the law on Dying Declarations are both transitional moments in the birth of formalist in law and music alike; both reflect changing and powerful ideas about text, meaning, interpretation, and, ultimately, about death.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

Modes of Law: Music and Legal Theory - An Interdisciplinary Workshop Introduction

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This essay introduces an interdisciplinary symposium held at Cardozo School of Law in New York, and argues for a new field of study on the relationship between music and legla theory - historical, social, semiotic, symbolic, and theoretical. The symposium gathered leading figures from fields of legal theory, social theory, and musicology to present their work.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

Et Lex Perpetua: Dying Declarations and Mozart’s Requiem

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This essay presents a joint history of music and society in relation to legal change particularly in the law of evidence, around 1750. the paper argues that the dramatic changes in both fields reflected similar social transformations which together changed their normative structure and assumptions, their relationship to text, interpretation, and authenticity, and their affective, instrumental, and normative ambitions. The history of music and the history of law are imbricated and entwined. Mozart's Requiem and the law on Dying Declarations are both transitional moments in the birth of formalist in law and music alike; both reflect changing and powerful ideas about text, meaning, interpretation, and, ultimately, about death.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

Modes of Law: Music and Legal Theory - An Interdisciplinary Workshop Introduction

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This essay introduces an interdisciplinary symposium held at Cardozo School of Law in New York, and argues for a new field of study on the relationship between music and legla theory - historical, social, semiotic, symbolic, and theoretical. The symposium gathered leading figures from fields of legal theory, social theory, and musicology to present their work.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

Deaths on the Table: Proposal for an International Convention on the Investigation and Prevention of Anaesthetic Mortality

Author(s):

There is a significant risk of mortality associated with anaesthesia which is distinct from that related to any relevant surgery or intercurrent disease. As a matter of pure logic patients worldwide should be entitled to expect a basic minimum of knowledge and skills from an anaesthetist, as well as his or her use of standard monitoring equipment. In an age where the global provision of health services and equipment may be increasingly dominated under trade-promoting international agreements, by a few transnational corporations, and where technology faciliates dissemination of medical data, a unified, worldwide approach to the investigation and prevention of anaesthetic mortality appears both rational and urgent.

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Centre:

Research theme:

Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the Threat to Patients: A Plea for Doctors to Respond Internationally

Author(s):

Many recent international agreements sponsored by bodies such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) aim to facilitate the global free flow of goods, services and capital, by opening markets under the threat of trade sanctions. Nation states signing such agreements, in particular the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agree to suffer a sovereignty deficit in order to enhance their trading prospects. In the resulting reorganization of trade, medicine may be marginalized as merely another industry that must open its regional doors in the interests of global corporate productivity. We make a plea for medical organizations to lobby in appropriate international fora to create 'hard' norms that ensure such international trade agreements adequately respect the demands of fundamental ethical principles of the doctor-patient relationship.

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Centre:

Research theme:

Authority and Corporeality: The Conundrum for Women in Law

Author(s): Margaret Thornton

Despite a significant increase in the number of women in the legal profession, women continue to be disproportionately represented in the lower echelons. It is apparent that the liberal progressivist thesis, which avers that the asymmetry will be remedied through numerosity, cannot be sustained. Structural theories of discrimination may be invoked to explain the gender differential, but it is argued that such theories are inadequate. The key to the conundrum lies in the social construction of femininity and masculinity through what are termed the ‘fictive feminine’ and the ‘imagined masculine.'

Drawing on qualitative research conducted for Dissonance and Distrust Women in the Legal Profession (Oxford University Press, 1996), the paper considers the ways in which the gender boundary is maintained so that the masculine remains the norm and the feminine the `other' for legal practice. It is argued that mechanisms emphasising the sexed body of the woman lawyer, including eroticisation, abjection, and motherhood, continue to reproduce conventional notions of the feminine and to diminish the authority of women as legal knowers in subtle ways.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CLAH

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Gender, Legal Education, The Legal Profession

Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the Threat to Patients: A Plea for Doctors to Respond Internationally

Author(s):

Many recent international agreements sponsored by bodies such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) aim to facilitate the global free flow of goods, services and capital, by opening markets under the threat of trade sanctions. Nation states signing such agreements, in particular the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agree to suffer a sovereignty deficit in order to enhance their trading prospects. In the resulting reorganization of trade, medicine may be marginalized as merely another industry that must open its regional doors in the interests of global corporate productivity. We make a plea for medical organizations to lobby in appropriate international fora to create 'hard' norms that ensure such international trade agreements adequately respect the demands of fundamental ethical principles of the doctor-patient relationship.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme:

A Pragmatic Legal Expert System

Author(s): James Popple

Most legal expert systems attempt to implement complex models of legal reasoning. Yet the utility of a legal expert system lies not in the extent to which it simulates a lawyer's approach to a legal problem, but in the quality of its predictions and of its arguments. A complex model of legal reasoning is not necessary: a successful legal expert system can be based upon a simplified model of legal reasoning. Some researchers have based their systems upon a jurisprudential approach to the law, yet lawyers are patently able to operate without any jurisprudential insight. A useful legal expert system should be capable of producing advice similar to that which one might get from a lawyer, so it should operate at the same pragmatic level of abstraction as does a lawyer-not at the more philosophical level of jurisprudence. A legal expert system called SHYSTER has been developed to demonstrate that a useful legal expert system can be based upon a pragmatic approach to the law. SHYSTER has a simple representation structure which simplifies the problem of knowledge acquisition. Yet this structure is complex enough for SHYSTER to produce useful advice. SHYSTER is a case-based legal expert system (although it has been designed so that it can be linked with a rule-based system to form a hybrid legal expert system). Its advice is based upon an examination of, and an argument about, the similarities and differences between cases. SHYSTER attempts to model the way in which lawyers argue with cases, but it does not attempt to model the way in which lawyers decide which cases to use in those arguments. Instead, it employs statistical techniques to quantify the similarity between cases. It decides which cases to use in argument, and what prediction it will make, on the basis of that similarity measure. SHYSTER is of a general design: it provides advice in areas of case law that have been specified by a legal expert using a specification language. Four different, and disparate, areas of law have been specified for SHYSTER, and its operation has been tested in each of those legal domains. Testing of SHYSTER in these four domains indicates that it is exceptionally good at predicting results, and fairly good at choosing cases with which to construct its arguments. SHYSTER demonstrates the viability of a pragmatic approach to legal expert system design.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme: Administrative Law

A Pragmatic Legal Expert System

Author(s): James Popple

Most legal expert systems attempt to implement complex models of legal reasoning. Yet the utility of a legal expert system lies not in the extent to which it simulates a lawyer's approach to a legal problem, but in the quality of its predictions and of its arguments. A complex model of legal reasoning is not necessary: a successful legal expert system can be based upon a simplified model of legal reasoning. Some researchers have based their systems upon a jurisprudential approach to the law, yet lawyers are patently able to operate without any jurisprudential insight. A useful legal expert system should be capable of producing advice similar to that which one might get from a lawyer, so it should operate at the same pragmatic level of abstraction as does a lawyer-not at the more philosophical level of jurisprudence. A legal expert system called SHYSTER has been developed to demonstrate that a useful legal expert system can be based upon a pragmatic approach to the law. SHYSTER has a simple representation structure which simplifies the problem of knowledge acquisition. Yet this structure is complex enough for SHYSTER to produce useful advice. SHYSTER is a case-based legal expert system (although it has been designed so that it can be linked with a rule-based system to form a hybrid legal expert system). Its advice is based upon an examination of, and an argument about, the similarities and differences between cases. SHYSTER attempts to model the way in which lawyers argue with cases, but it does not attempt to model the way in which lawyers decide which cases to use in those arguments. Instead, it employs statistical techniques to quantify the similarity between cases. It decides which cases to use in argument, and what prediction it will make, on the basis of that similarity measure. SHYSTER is of a general design: it provides advice in areas of case law that have been specified by a legal expert using a specification language. Four different, and disparate, areas of law have been specified for SHYSTER, and its operation has been tested in each of those legal domains. Testing of SHYSTER in these four domains indicates that it is exceptionally good at predicting results, and fairly good at choosing cases with which to construct its arguments. SHYSTER demonstrates the viability of a pragmatic approach to legal expert system design.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme: Administrative Law

SHYSTER: The Program

Author(s): James Popple

This technical report provides fully commented and indexed listings of the ISO C source code for the SHYSTER legal expert system.

Details of the design, implementation, operation and testing of SHYSTER are given by Popple in A Pragmatic Legal Expert System (1996), Applied Legal Philosophy Series, Dartmouth (Ashgate), Aldershot, ISBN-1-85521-739-2 - available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1335176.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme: Administrative Law

Licensed to Kill : Endangered Fauna Licensing Under the National Parks & Wildlife Act 1974 (NSW) Between 1991-1995

Author(s): James Prest

The focus of this paper is on the effectiveness of administration of the Endangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991 by the National Parks and Wildlife Service of NSW, Australia, between 1991 and 1995, particularly in regulating the effects on biodiversity of logging operations in NSW publicly owned native forests. A key mechanism of the Act was its requirement that those seeking to significantly modify the habitat of endangered fauna seek a licence to take or kill, and that they prepare a Fauna Impact Statement (FIS) justifying their activity. This historical and empirical study focuses on the licensing practices of the NPWS considering temporary licensing, licence variations and the use of authorities in place of licensing. This study presents previously unpublished data on the operation of the licensing system. 95% of the licences granted to the Forestry Commission were temporary licences. Thus the Forestry Commission held those licences without ever having been required to complete FIS and without the threat of public appeal against decisions to grant general licences. The paper examines the reasons for accommodatory approaches by regulators such as the NPWS, and finds that some of these factors were present in some instances of particular aspects of the implementation of the Act. These factors included lack of agency resources, imbalance of power and insecure basis of regulatory agency authority, avoidance of perceived economic dislocation, lack of public support, and the undermining effect of plans for new legislation. Examination of the history of operation of these EFIP Act provides an excellent vantage point from which to examine other biodiversity legislation. Australian biodiversity and ecosystems are unlikely to be protected by merely enacting legislation which bears the name "endangered species protection" if attention is not paid to the issue of implementation. The drafters of any new legislation need to consider how political pressure will tend to result in the misuse of specific provisions. The paper closes with a historical account of the circumstances surrounding the enactment of the EFIP Act, arising from the Corkill litigation over logging of Chaelundi State Forest.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme: Environmental Law, Law, Governance and Development, Regulatory Law and Policy

Statuta and Acts: Interpretation, Music, and Early English Legislation

Author(s): Desmond Manderson

This article compares music and law in the period 1200-1500 in order to highlight the shared social and textual history of each, looking particularly at changing ideas of normativity, authority, and textuality in each genre and arguing for the significance of music for the changing social meaning of law and law for the changing social meaning of music. Formal, textual,a nd social analysis cohere to develop an argument for music as an important field of inquiry into the cultural representation of law.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CLAH

Research theme: Legal Theory

Remedying Discriminatory Harms in the Workplace

Author(s): Margaret Thornton

This paper explores the concept of remedies in the context of Australian anti-discrimination legislation in the workplace. It highlights the paradox between the individualized nature of a complaint and the necessity for a complaint to establish membership of a class. This paradox has deterred tribunals and courts from devising class-based remedies for discriminatory harms.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CLAH

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Gender, Legal Education, The Legal Profession

SHYSTER: A Pragmatic Legal Expert System

Author(s): James Popple

Most legal expert systems attempt to implement complex models of legal reasoning. Yet the utility of a legal expert system lies not in the extent to which it simulates a lawyer's approach to a legal problem, but in the quality of its predictions and of its arguments. A complex model of legal reasoning is not necessary: a successful legal expert system can be based upon a simplified model of legal reasoning.

Some researchers have based their systems upon a jurisprudential approach to the law, yet lawyers are patently able to operate without any jurisprudential insight. A useful legal expert system should be capable of producing advice similar to that which one might get from a lawyer, so it should operate at the same pragmatic level of abstraction as does a lawyer-not at the more philosophical level of jurisprudence.

A legal expert system called SHYSTER has been developed to demonstrate that a useful legal expert system can be based upon a pragmatic approach to the law. SHYSTER has a simple representation structure which simplifies the problem of knowledge acquisition. Yet this structure is complex enough for SHYSTER to produce useful advice.

SHYSTER is a case-based legal expert system (although it has been designed so that it can be linked with a rule-based system to form a hybrid legal expert system). Its advice is based upon an examination of, and an argument about, the similarities and differences between cases. SHYSTER attempts to model the way in which lawyers argue with cases, but it does not attempt to model the way in which lawyers decide which cases to use in those arguments. Instead, it employs statistical techniques to quantify the similarity between cases. It decides which cases to use in argument, and what prediction it will make, on the basis of that similarity measure.

SHYSTER is of a general design: it provides advice in areas of case law that have been specified by a legal expert using a specification language. Four different, and disparate, areas of law have been specified for SHYSTER, and its operation has been tested in each of those legal domains.

Testing of SHYSTER in these four domains indicates that it is exceptionally good at predicting results, and fairly good at choosing cases with which to construct its arguments. SHYSTER demonstrates the viability of a pragmatic approach to legal expert system design.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme: Administrative Law

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