Publications

This is a searchable catalogue of the College's most recent books, book chapters, journal articles and working papers. The ANU College of Law also publishes a Research Paper Series on SSRN.

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When Is the Advancement of Religion Not a Charitable Purpose?

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

This article addresses the question of why religious groups receive charitable status in relation to religious activities by considering when the current law does not grant charitable status to purposes that advance religion. The jurisdictional focus is upon Australian law, with some reference to other jurisdictions whose law also derives from the English common law of charity. After an overview of the charity law landscape in Australia, the article explains and critically evaluates the grounds upon which charitable status may be refused to purposes that advance religion. The article then considers two considerations that have emerged in twenty first century charity law and that are relevant to the charitable status of religious groups. These concern human rights, particularly the right to freedom of religion, and the use of charity law to regulate religious activity.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Private Law

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Not-for-Profit Law and Freedom of Religion

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

The discussion in this chapter of particular intersections between English not-for-profit law and the right to freedom of religion highlights some problems in the existing law. The following suggestions for reform merit further attention. First, ‘religion’ should be defined as widely as possible in order to protect freedom of religion and to promote clarity in legal reasoning. Secondly, in relation to Article 14’s application to religious groups a conceptual framework is needed to determine when it is legitimate for the State to discriminate between religious groups by way of fiscal policy and to more clearly delineate the margin of appreciation afforded to the State when doing so.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Private Law

New Directors for Law in Australia

New Directions for Law in Australia

Editor(s): Ron Levy, Molly Townes O'Brien, Pauline Ridge, Margaret Thornton

For reasons of effectiveness, efficiency and equity, Australian law reform should be planned carefully. Academics can and should take the lead in this process. This book collects over 50 discrete law reform recommendations, encapsulated in short, digestible essays written by leading Australian scholars. It emerges from a major conference held at The Australian National University in 2016, which featured intensive discussion among participants from government, practice and the academy. The book is intended to serve as a national focal point for Australian legal innovation. It is divided into six main parts: commercial and corporate law, criminal law and evidence, environmental law, private law, public law, and legal practice and legal education. In addition, Indigenous perspectives on law reform are embedded throughout each part. This collective work—the first of its kind—will be of value to policy makers, media, law reform agencies, academics, practitioners and the judiciary. It provides a bird’s eye view of the current state and the future of law reform in Australia.

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Centre: LRSJ

Research theme: Law and Social Justice

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Modern Equity: Revolution or Renewal from Within?

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

Peter Birks spearheaded a revolution in thinking about Equity. This paper questions how successful that revolution has been. Two narratives of modern Equity are identified: the revolutionary narrative commenced by Birks and one counter-narrative that is apparent in contemporary case law. Three particular strands of these narratives are then discussed. They concern the integration of the Common Law and Equity; conscience-based reasoning; and judicial method. Illustrations are taken largely from the law governing third party ancillary liabilities that protect equitable rights. Claims against recipients of property protected by Equity, particularly the claim for unconscionable retention of benefit following receipt of misappropriated trust property, are used to illustrate the integration of the Common Law and Equity and the use of conscience-based reasoning. Judicial method is discussed in the context of equitable accessory and recipient liability. Reference is also made to the doctrine of undue influence, the change of position defence, mistaken gifts and private law claims tainted by illegality.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Private Law

Accessories in Private Law

Accessories in private law

Author(s): Pauline Ridge, Joachim Dietrich

Accessory liability is an often neglected but very important topic across all areas of private law. By providing a principled analytical framework for the law of accessories and identifying common themes and problems that arise in the law, this book provides much-needed clarity. It explains the fundamental concepts that are used to impose liability on accessories, particularly the conduct and mental elements of liability: 'involvement' in the primary wrong and (generally) knowledge. It also sets out in detail the specific rules and principles of liability as these operate in different areas of common law, equity and statute. A comparative study across common law and criminal law jurisdictions, including the United States, also sheds new light on what is and what is not accessory liability.

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Centre: CCL

Research theme: Criminal Law, International Law, Private Law

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Fault Lines in Equity

Editor(s): Pauline Ridge, Jamie Glister

Equity, the body of law developed in the English Court of Chancery, has a long and distinguished history. In the twenty-first century it continues to be an important regulator of both commercial and personal dealings, as well as informing statutory regulation. Although much equitable doctrine is settled, there remain some intractable problems that bedevil lawyers across jurisdictions. The essays in this collection employ new historical, comparative and theoretical perspectives to cast light on these fault lines in equitable doctrine and methodology.  Leading scholars and practitioners from England, Australia and New Zealand examine such contentious topics as personal and proprietary liability for breaches of equitable duties (including fiduciary duties), the creation of non-express trusts, equitable rights in insolvency, the fiduciary 'self dealing' rule, clogs on the equity of redemption, the distribution of assets on family breakdown, and the suitability of unjust enrichment analysis. The authors address specific doctrinal questions as well as the 'meta' issues of organisation and methodology, and their findings will be of value to academics and practitioners alike.

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Centre: CCL

Research theme: Private Law

Legal Regulation of Religious Giving

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

The article considers the legal regulation of religious giving in nineteenth century England. Three leading cases, decided between 1871 and 1887, are discussed. Each case involves a woman of Roman Catholic, or Roman Catholic-like persuasion, making a substantial testamentary or inter vivos gift to the religious body with which she is associated. It is argued that whether the gift was construed as an outright gift or a trust for purposes was crucial to its enforceability. Two key themes are considered: autonomy concerns in relation to religious giving (including reasons why these concerns were more pressing with respect to inter vivos gifts) and the different levels of legal recognition of religious giving. The law during this period took an active role both in managing the relationship of religious groups with the state and in controlling the activities of religious groups; conversely, suppressed religious groups managed to operate around, and outside, the law.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Private Law

Legal Regulation of Religious Giving

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

The article considers the legal regulation of religious giving in nineteenth century England. Three leading cases, decided between 1871 and 1887, are discussed. Each case involves a woman of Roman Catholic, or Roman Catholic-like persuasion, making a substantial testamentary or inter vivos gift to the religious body with which she is associated. It is argued that whether the gift was construed as an outright gift or a trust for purposes was crucial to its enforceability. Two key themes are considered: autonomy concerns in relation to religious giving (including reasons why these concerns were more pressing with respect to inter vivos gifts) and the different levels of legal recognition of religious giving. The law during this period took an active role both in managing the relationship of religious groups with the state and in controlling the activities of religious groups; conversely, suppressed religious groups managed to operate around, and outside, the law.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Private Law

Legal and Ethical Matters Relevant to the Receipt of Financial Benefits by Ministers of Religion and Churches: A Case Study of the New South Synod of the Uniting Church in Australia

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

This paper discusses some of the findings of a research project on the use of spiritual influence for financial gain, using the New South Wales Synod of the Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) as a case study. The paper begins with the hypothesis that regulation is required with respect to the receipt of financial benefits by ministers of religion and religious bodies from those under their spiritual care. Current legal and ethical regulation is briefly outlined before the project’s findings are discussed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with leading players in the New South Wales Synod, who were asked to recount stories relating to the receipt of financial benefit that they perceived to constitute an abuse of spiritual influence for financial gain. It was found that at least two general scenarios existed which caused concern to interviewees but which were not regulated by law. The paper describes examples of these scenarios and considers whether they raise legal or ethical concerns.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Private Law

Updated:  10 August 2015/Responsible Officer:  College General Manager, ANU College of Law/Page Contact:  Law Marketing Team