Publications

This is a searchable catalogue of the College's most recent books, book chapters, journal articles and working papers. The ANU College of Law also publishes a Research Paper Series on SSRN.

Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories

Constitutional issues in Australia’s subnational relations with China

Editor(s): Dominique Dalla-Pozza, Donald Rothwell

This chapter assesses the international legal and constitutional law issues associated with the capacity of the Australian states and territories to conduct themselves in foreign affairs, especially vis-à-vis China. It is published in the book, Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories, edited by Emeritus Professor John Fitzgerald and published by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute in partnership with Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS).

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories

Constitutional issues in Australia’s subnational relations with China

Editor(s): Dominique Dalla-Pozza, Donald Rothwell

This chapter assesses the international legal and constitutional law issues associated with the capacity of the Australian states and territories to conduct themselves in foreign affairs, especially vis-à-vis China. It is published in the book, Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories, edited by John Fitzgerald and published by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

LSJ

Australian law in the freezer: 60 years of the Antarctic Treaty

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

In June this year, the Antarctic Treaty will celebrate its 60th anniversary. The milestone has prompted questions as to whether a treaty negotiated in 1959 is capable of continuing to provide an appropriate governance framework for Antarctica.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

the_antarctic_treaty_at_sixty_years.jpg

The Antarctic Treaty at Sixty Years: Past, Present and Future

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

The Antarctic Treaty, which celebrates its 60th anniversary in 2019, remains as a unique example of an international law instrument that seeks to provide a governance mechanism for a single continent. Both Japan and Australia were original parties to the Antarctic Treaty and have been strong supporters of the Treaty throughout its lifetime. However, in 2019 questions are starting to be raised as to whether a treaty negotiated in 1959 is capable of continuing to provide an appropriate governance framework for Antarctica. These questions relate to the role of the seven Antarctic claimant States, the role of historically prominent non-claimant States such as the United States and the Russian Federation, and the interests of powerful ‘new’ States that are beginning to express a strong interest in polar affairs such as China. This paper assesses whether the Antarctic Treaty is sufficiently robust to address the challenges that confront Antarctic governance in 2019 and into the future. Particular attention will be given to whether it remains possible for Treaty parties to request an Article XII ‘Review Conference’, and also the 1991 Madrid Protocol Article 25 review mechanisms.

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Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

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Editor(s): Donald Rothwell, David Letts, joe bloggs

Centre:

Research theme:

The Law of the Sea

The Oxford Handbook of The Law of the Sea

Editor(s): Donald Rothwell, Alex G Oude Elferink, Karen N Scott, Tim Stephens

This book provides a landmark study into the law of the sea, taking stock of the majors developments, core concepts, and key challenges within this fundamental area of law. Written by over forty expert contributors, both eminent scholars and leading practitioners, it explores the most important issues facing the world's oceans and seas, including piracy, climate change, and military operations.

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Centre: CMSL

Research theme: International Law

International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives

International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives - Second Edition

Author(s): Donald Rothwell, Stuart B Kaye, Afshin Akhtarkhavari, Ruth Davis

International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives is the authoritative textbook for Australian international law students. Written by a team of experts, it examines how international law is developed, implemented and interpreted, and features comprehensive commentary throughout. All core areas of the law are covered, with chapters on human rights, law of the sea, international environmental law and enforcement of international law. Cases and treaties are dissected to highlight the key principles, rules and distinctive learning points. This new edition has been thoroughly updated in line with recent developments in the field and includes a new chapter on the use of force, as well as expanded content on the enforcement of international law, including sanctions, law enforcement against pirates and the 2011 Libyan conflict. International Law provides clear and rigorous analysis and is an indispensable resource for law students.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Environmental Law, International Law

Arctic Sovereignty

Arctic Sovereignty and its Legal Significance for Canada

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

Throughout much of the Twentieth Century there was an ongoing debate within Canada as to the status of its territorial claims in the Arctic. Following the voyage of the SS Manhattan in 1969 that debate was joined to also encompass consideration of Canadian Arctic maritime sovereignty. With the exception of the disputed Hans Island, over which Canada and Denmark have agreed to disagree, there is no direct challenge to Canadian Arctic sovereignty in 2013. Nevertheless, it has been a persistent theme in Canadian academic and political discourse for much of the past decade that Canada’s Arctic sovereignty is threatened. Canada, along with all of the Arctic states, is also beginning to face the reality that the Arctic is facing rapid globalization partly as a result of climate change and the melting of the Arctic ice but also because of the growing interest of non-Arctic states in accessing the Arctic. This paper seeks to challenge some of the perceptions that have developed with respect to Canadian Arctic sovereignty from the perspective of international law. Consideration will be given to the status of Canada’s territorial and maritime claims in the Arctic, and the rights and obligations that Canada has in the Arctic as a party to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC). Particular attention will be given to Canada’s claims to an Arctic outer continental shelf, the regulation and management of the Northwest Passage, and the freedoms of navigation enjoyed by non-Arctic states within Canada’s exclusive economic zone.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Rothwell, The Law of the Sea

The law of the sea and the polar regions: Interactions between global and regional regimes

Editor(s): Donald Rothwell, Erik J. Molenaar, Alex G Oude Elferink

The Law of the Sea and the Polar Regions: Interactions between Global and Regional Regimes analyzes the contemporary Law of the Sea and related areas of international law in Antarctica and the Arctic, with a particular focus upon the interaction of global and regional regimes. The global component of the international law of the sea - principally the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - applies to the entire marine domain in both polar regions but explicitly requires regional implementation or acknowledges its usefulness. This volume  examines regional regimes for the Arctic and Antarctic on science, maritime security, fisheries and shipping by means of common research questions; thus enabling an overall synthesis and identification of trends, differences and similarities.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Environmental Law, International Law

Polar Opposites

Polar Opposites: Environmental Discourses and Management in Antarctica and the Arctic

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

In 2009 the 1959 Antarctic Treaty celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. Its resilience in managing the Antarctic continent and parts of the adjacent Southern Ocean is generally seen as one of the great ‘success stories’ of contemporary international law. This is especially the case when it is considered that the treaty was negotiated during the height of the Cold War at a time when the USSR and US had significant interests in Antarctica, and that the treaty never sought to resolve simmering sovereignty tensions over parts of the continent especially those between Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom over their competing claims to parts of the Antarctic Peninsula. Now, in the early part of the Twenty First century and notwithstanding the lack of recognition which has been granted to the seven territorial claims to the Antarctic continent, the Antarctic Treaty now includes not only the original 12 states parties, but an additional 36 states parties from varied parts of the globe, and retains its capacity to effectively manage Antarctic affairs.

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Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Polar Opposites

Polar Opposites: Environmental Discourses and Management in Antarctica and the Arctic

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

In 2009 the 1959 Antarctic Treaty celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. Its resilience in managing the Antarctic continent and parts of the adjacent Southern Ocean is generally seen as one of the great ‘success stories’ of contemporary international law. This is especially the case when it is considered that the treaty was negotiated during the height of the Cold War at a time when the USSR and US had significant interests in Antarctica, and that the treaty never sought to resolve simmering sovereignty tensions over parts of the continent especially those between Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom over their competing claims to parts of the Antarctic Peninsula. Now, in the early part of the Twenty First century and notwithstanding the lack of recognition which has been granted to the seven territorial claims to the Antarctic continent, the Antarctic Treaty now includes not only the original 12 states parties, but an additional 36 states parties from varied parts of the globe, and retains its capacity to effectively manage Antarctic affairs.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Compulsory Pilotage

Compulsory Pilotage and the Law of the Sea: Lessons Learned from the Torres Strait

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

The regulation of navigation by shipping has been one of the longest standing issues confronting the law of the sea. Once states began to assert various forms of control and regulation over their adjacent waters, the issue of regulating the passage of foreign-flagged ships needed to be addressed. While the navigational rights and freedoms of shipping is now relatively settled under both the LOSC and contemporary state practice, a counterpoint to this has gradually emerged over the past 30 years due to a growing environmental awareness by coastal states of the need for enhanced environmental protection and management of not only their waters, but also their marine environmental resources and adjacent coastal areas. One response by coastal states has been to adopt compulsory pilotage regimes under which certain ships are required to take on board pilots, or avail themselves of pilotage services, as they pass through certain waters. Pilotage has a long maritime history, and is closely connected with efforts to secure the safety of shipping and the safety of a port from wayward ships. Once pilotage is required beyond internal waters in the territorial sea of a coastal state including an international strait the LOSC imposes constraints on the coastal state regulation of foreign shipping within those waters. Those rights of the coastal state are not unilateral and must be understood in the context of not only the LOSC but also related mechanisms and frameworks, especially those dealing with ship safety and the regulation of navigation overseen by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). This essay looks at these issues in the context of a compulsory pilotage regime that has been adopted by Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) for the Torres Strait, and then considers what options may be available for equivalent measures to be adopted for the Straits of Malacca and Singapore.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Rothwell, Antarctic

Antarctic Security in the Twenty-First Century: Legal and Policy Perspectives

Editor(s): Donald Rothwell, Alan Hemmings, Karen N Scott

The Antarctic Treaty (1959) was adopted for the purpose of bringing peace and stability to Antarctica and to facilitate cooperation in scientific research conducted on and around the continent. It has now been over fifty years since the signing of the treaty, nevertheless security continues to drive and shape the laws and policy regime which governs the region. Antarctic Security in the Twenty-First Century: Legal and Policy Perspectives assess Antarctic security from multiple legal and policy perspectives. This book reviews the existing security construct in Antarctica, critically assesses its status in the early part of the Twenty-First century and considers how Antarctic security may be viewed in both the immediate and distant future. It assesses emerging new security threats, including the impact of climate change and the issues arising from increased human traffic to Antarctica by scientists, tourists, and mariners. The authors call into question whether the existing Antarctic security construct framed around the Antarctic Treaty remains viable, or whether new Antarctic paradigms are necessary for the future governance of the region.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The International Law of the Sea

The International Law of the Sea

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

The law of the sea provides for the regulation, management and governance of the ocean spaces that cover over two-thirds of the Earth's surface. This book provides a fresh explanation of the foundational principles of the law of the sea, a critical overview of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and an analysis of subsequent developments including the many bilateral, regional and global agreements that supplement the Convention.

The book takes as its focus the rules and institutions established by the Convention on the Law of the Sea and places the achievements of the Convention in both historical and contemporary context. All of the main areas of the law of the sea are addressed including the foundations and sources of the law, the nature and extent of the maritime zones, the delimitation of overlapping maritime boundaries, the place of archipelagic and other special states in the law of the sea, navigational rights and freedoms, military activities at sea, and marine resource and conservation issues including fisheries, marine environmental protection, and dispute settlement.

As the Convention is now over a quarter of a century old the book takes stock of contemporary oceans issues that are not adequately addressed by the convention. Overarching challenges facing the law of the sea are considered, including how new maritime security initiatives can be reconciled with traditional navigational rights and freedoms, how declines in the health of marine ecosystems can be halted through strengthened legal regimes, and how the law of the sea can regulate ocean space in the Polar regions as global warming opens up new possibilities for resource exploitation.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Book cover

Australian Coastal and Marine Law

Editor(s): Donald Rothwell, Rachel Baird

This book is a comprehensive guide to Australian coastal and marine law. Since the landmark enactment of the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973 (Cth), and the subsequent High Court decision in NSW v Commonwealth, there have been rapid developments in Australian coastal and marine law and policy. The Offshore Constitutional Settlement paved the way for offshore management between the Commonwealth, States and the Northern Territory, and from this foundation a raft of new environmental laws were adopted in the 1980s and 1990s, often promoted by international developments such as the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or through new marine pollution conventions adopted by the International Maritime Organisation. The book reflects upon how Australian law regulates and manages a range of environmental issues which arise in the coastal zone and the marine environment. 

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Centre:

Research theme: Environmental Law, Regulatory Law and Policy

Arctic Ocean Choke Points and the Law of the Sea

Arctic Ocean Choke Points and the Law of the Sea

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

As the international law of the sea has developed throughout the centuries, and there has been a growing acceptance of the legitimacy of a range of maritime zones, there has been a need to provide certainty with respect to the freedom of navigation through certain waters. The initial focus was to assure freedom of navigation in the territorial sea, and this saw the gradual recognition of innocent passage which guaranteed rights of navigation by foreign-flagged vessels. The innocent passage regime developed alongside expanding claims by coastal states to a broader territorial sea, and as long as expansive claims to a territorial sea were kept under check significant disruption to maritime traffic through straits used by international navigation was minimised. However, as the territorial sea regime became more accepted as a part of customary international law, and then was recognised in the 1958 Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, it was evident that the particular issues that arose concerning navigation through straits would have to be addressed.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Book cover

Maritime Security: International Law and Policy Perspectives from Australia and New Zealand

Editor(s): Donald Rothwell, Natalie Klein, Joanna Mossop

Maritime security is of vital importance to Australia and New Zealand as both countries depend on maritime transport for their economic survival. Since the events of September 11th 2001, significant questions have been raised as to whether Australia and New Zealand are adequately prepared for the consequences of a major disruption to global shipping following a terrorist attack on a leading regional port such as Hong Kong or Singapore. Considerable efforts have also been undertaken to improve responses to an array of maritime security threats, such as transnational crime, environmental pollution, and piracy and armed robbery. This volume identifies those issues that particularly affect Australia and New Zealand’s maritime security, evaluating the issues from legal and political perspectives, and proposes methods for improving maritime security in the two countries. While the focus is primarily on Australia and New Zealand, the scope extends to regional considerations, addressing matters related to Pacific Island states, Southeast Asia and the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic region. The book also addresses strategic partnerships examining the influence of the United States, and analyses issues within the broad framework of international law and politics.

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Centre: CMSL

Research theme: Military & Security Law

Book cover

International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives

Author(s): Donald Rothwell, Kaye Stuart, Afshin Akhtarkhavari, Ruth Davis

International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives is the authoritative textbook for Australian international law students. Written by a team of experts, it examines how international law is developed, implemented and interpreted, and features comprehensive commentary throughout. All core areas of the law are covered, with chapters on human rights, law of the sea, international environmental law and enforcement of international law. Cases and treaties are dissected to highlight the key principles, rules and distinctive learning points. This new edition has been thoroughly updated in line with recent developments in the field and includes a new chapter on the use of force, as well as expanded content on the enforcement of international law, including sanctions, law enforcement against pirates and the 2011 Libyan conflict. International Law provides clear and rigorous analysis and is an indispensable resource for law students.

Order your copy online

Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Book cover

The International Law of the Sea

Author(s): Donald Rothwell, Tim Stephens

The law of the sea provides for the regulation, management, and governance of ocean spaces that cover over two-thirds of the Earth's surface. This text provides: a fresh explanation of the foundational principles of the law of the sea; a critical overview of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; and an analysis of subsequent developments, including the many bilateral, regional, and global agreements that supplement the Convention. The book takes as its focus the rules and institutions established by the Law of the Sea Convention and places the achievements of the Convention in both historical and contemporary context.   As the Convention is now over a quarter of a century old, the book takes stock of contemporary oceans issues that are not adequately addressed by the Convention. Overarching challenges facing the law of the sea are addressed including: how new maritime security initiatives can be reconciled with traditional navigational rights and freedoms; how declines in the health of marine ecosystems can be addressed through new and strengthened legal regimes; and how the law of the sea can regulate ocean space in the Polar regions, as global warming opens up new possibilities for resource exploitation.

Order your copy online

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law

The Regulation of Southern Ocean Whaling

The Regulation of Southern Ocean Whaling: What Role for the Antarctic Treaty System?

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

In 2009, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty celebrates its fiftieth anniversary. Over its fifty-year existence the Treaty and the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) built upon it, have promoted freedom of scientific research in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Despite the many successes of the Antarctic legal regime, there has been growing disquiet over the conduct by Japan, an Antarctic Treaty party, of its 'special permit' whaling program in the Southern Ocean. This program now has a lengthy history stretching back to the late 1980s, and has been undertaken purportedly in reliance on the 1946 International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling, which allows whaling for scientific purposes in limited circumstances. It has also been pursued on the assumption that the global whaling regime takes priority over the disciplines imposed by the regionally-focussed Antarctic Treaty System which seeks, among other things, to promote scientific research in Antarctica and to protect the Antarctic ecosystem. This article examines the interaction between the Antarctic and whaling regimes and argues that the main environmental text in the ATS, the 1991 Environmental Protocol, imposes obligations upon Japan to minimise or eliminate the environmental risks of its burgeoning Southern Ocean whaling program.

Read on SSRN

Centre: CIPL, CMSL

Research theme: International Law, Military & Security Law

Pages

Updated:  10 August 2015/Responsible Officer:  College General Manager, ANU College of Law/Page Contact:  Law Marketing Team