Publications

This is a searchable catalogue of the College's most recent books, book chapters, journal articles and working papers. The ANU College of Law also publishes a Research Paper Series on SSRN.

International Law and (the Critique of) PInternational Law and (the Critique of) Political Economyolitical Economy

International Law and (the Critique of) Political Economy

Author(s): Ntina Tzouvala

The purpose of this paper is dual, and it has to do with specificity. First, it aims to show that a “law and political economy” approach to international law has been and will be distinct from its US counterpart. To do so, it offers an overview of both the prevailing approaches to and critical engagements with the field. Having shown that neoliberal hegemony is upheld within international law by an admixture of heterogeneous modes of reasoning, the author proceed to argue that this heterogeneity also permeates critical scholarship. This heterogeneity has enabled critical approaches to flourish, but often to the detriment of a consistent, coherent, and purposeful engagement with political economy. The second aim is to show that Marxism offers a distinct and distinctly useful set of analytical tools for international law. Having offered an overview of existing strands of Marxist thought, the author also reflects on the work that remains to be done.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Property rights and climate migration: Adaptive governance in the South Pacific

Property rights and climate migration: Adaptive governance in the South Pacific

Author(s): Rebecca Monson

How would a polycentric property system react to mass movements of people caused by escalating climate change? Drawing on multidisciplinary perspectives, the article suggests an analytical frame for polycentric property system responses to climate migration. The case study is Solomon Islands, a South Pacific state with high levels of environmental vulnerability, where people draw on various governance mechanisms to secure proprietary relationships with land. These governance mechanisms not only encompass property rights derived from the state, but also proprietary relationships secured through social norms, informal agreements, and acts of mutual coordination. The key argument is that governance mechanisms to secure property rights for climate migrants have absorptive limits that affect broader processes of adaptation to climate change. The heuristic of absorptive capacity provides a basis to consider adaptive property law for a future of climate migration.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

International Law and (the Critique of) Political Economy

International Law and (the Critique of) Political Economy

Author(s): Ntina Tzouvala

The purpose of this paper is dual, and it has to do with specificity. First, it aims to show that a “law and political economy” approach to international law has been and will be distinct from its US counterpart. To do so, it offers an overview of both the prevailing approaches to and critical engagements with the field. Having shown that neoliberal hegemony is upheld within international law by an admixture of heterogeneous modes of reasoning, the author proceed to argue that this heterogeneity also permeates critical scholarship. This heterogeneity has enabled critical approaches to flourish, but often to the detriment of a consistent, coherent, and purposeful engagement with political economy. The second aim is to show that Marxism offers a distinct and distinctly useful set of analytical tools for international law. Having offered an overview of existing strands of Marxist thought, the author also reflects on the work that remains to be done.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Digital Trade in the Australia—EU FTA: A Future-Forward Perspective

Digital Trade in the Australia—EU FTA: A Future-Forward Perspective

Editor(s): Neha Mishra

This paper assesses the significance of the Digital Trade Chapter of the Australia—EU FTA and focuses on the disciplines necessary to boost digital trade. In the ongoing negotiations, the EU and Australia are likely to agree upon conventional digital trade disciplines (e.g., e-signatures, e-authentication, paperless trading, customs duties on electronic transmissions) as well as provisions on online consumer trust and spam, and more contemporary disciplines on source code disclosure and data localisation. These disciplines can undoubtedly contribute to boosting digital trade between Australia and the EU. However, data flows and data protection will remain a sticky issue in the ongoing negotiations, given the differences in data protection laws of the EU and Australia, and the EU’s exceptionally defensive approach in data protection. Instead of bypassing such issues, the FTA negotiators should view the negotiations as an opportunity to build mutual consensus and foster cooperation in formulating standards and mechanisms for data transfer. Further, the negotiations provide an opportunity for adopting deeper disciplines on digital trade facilitation that can nurture start-ups as well as experimenting with novel models for regulatory cooperation in nascent policy areas including AI ethics and open government data.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Australia-European Union Free Trade Agreement

Investment Protection in the AEUFTA: Missed Opportunities or Strategic Exclusions?

Editor(s): Esme Shirlow

Negotiations between Australia and the European Union (EU) for a free trade agreement (the AEUFTA) appear to be nearing completion. Based on the EU’s negotiating mandate and the official reports from the negotiations so far, it is clear that the AEUFTA’s investment-related provisions will focus exclusively on market access and investment liberalisation. The AEUFTA will thus not incorporate investment protection obligations and nor will it include an investor-State dispute settlement mechanism. Despite these omissions, the conclusion of the AEUFTA will be significant from the perspective of both negotiating States, including because it reveals the policy and legal constraints guiding the approach of each to the negotiation and conclusion of investment treaties and investment chapters in FTAs. This article first introduces the contours of the bilateral investment relationship between the EU and Australia and then examines why the FTA adopts an exclusively liberalisation-focussed approach, to address whether the exclusion of investment protection and investor-State arbitration from the scope of the FTA is a strategic omission on the part of one or both parties. To consider next whether such omission is a missed opportunity, the article examines the likely focus of the investment-related provisions of the treaty, and what impact the FTA is likely to have vis-à-vis investors and existing investment treaties.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Civil Remedies and Human Rights in Flux

The Philippines: Civil Vindications for Uncivilised Wrongs

Editor(s): Gemmo Fernandez

What private law avenues are open to victims of human rights violations? This chapter features in an innovative new collection, Civil Remedies and Human Rights in Flux, which explores this question across sixteen jurisdictions in the Global South and Global North.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories

Constitutional issues in Australia’s subnational relations with China

Editor(s): Dominique Dalla-Pozza, Donald Rothwell

This chapter assesses the international legal and constitutional law issues associated with the capacity of the Australian states and territories to conduct themselves in foreign affairs, especially vis-à-vis China. It is published in the book, Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories, edited by Emeritus Professor John Fitzgerald and published by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute in partnership with Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS).

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories

Constitutional issues in Australia’s subnational relations with China

Editor(s): Dominique Dalla-Pozza, Donald Rothwell

This chapter assesses the international legal and constitutional law issues associated with the capacity of the Australian states and territories to conduct themselves in foreign affairs, especially vis-à-vis China. It is published in the book, Taking the low road: China's influence in Australian states and territories, edited by John Fitzgerald and published by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Practice and Problems of Transnational Counter-Terrorism

The Practice and Problems of Transnational Counter-Terrorism

Author(s): Fiona de Londras

The attacks of 9/11 kickstarted the development of a pervasive and durable transnational counter-terrorism order. This has evolved into a vast institutional architecture with direct effects on domestic law around the world and a number of impacts on everyday life that are often poorly understood. States found, fund and lead institutions inside and outside the United Nations that develop and consolidate transnational counter-terrorism through hard and soft law, strategies, capacity building and counter-terrorism 'products'. These institutions and laws underpin the expansion of counter-terrorism, so that new fields of activity get drawn into it, and others are securitised through their reframing as counter-terrorism and 'preventing and countering extremism'. Drawing on insights from law, international relations, political science and security studies, this book demonstrates the international, regional, national and personal impacts of this institutional and legal order. Fiona de Londras demonstrates that it is expansionary, rights-limiting and unaccountable.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Critical Legal Pocketbook

The Critical Legal Pocketbook

Author(s): Ntina Tzouvala, Illan rua Wall , Freya Middleton, Sahar Shah, CLAW

The Critical Legal Pocketbook provides the tools for law students to uncover the hidden intricacies of law. Law creates an ethical and rational facade for itself, but beneath the surface you will find that it has its monsters; the leviathan of the state, the golems of racism and misogyny, the hydra of coloniality, the vampire of capitalism. These roam throughout law’s subterranean structures. At the same time, law is often painted as a heroic defence of the innocent against these terrors. Legal education likes to forget the ways that law was essential in generating structures of domination and subjection. 

Dr Ntina Tzouvala authored Chapter 8, 'How to run an empire (lawfully)'.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Research Handbook on Unilateral and Extraterritorial Sanctions

Research Handbook on Unilateral and Extraterritorial Sanctions

Author(s): Anton Moiseienko

Providing a unique analytical framework to capture a diverse, fragmented and highly evolving practice, the Research Handbook on Unilateral and Extraterritorial Sanctions is the key original reference work covering how sanctions have indisputably become central instruments of foreign policy.

Dr Anton Moiseienko authored Chapter 23, 'Due process and unilateral targeted sanctions'.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, International Law

LSJ

Australian law in the freezer: 60 years of the Antarctic Treaty

Author(s): Donald Rothwell

In June this year, the Antarctic Treaty will celebrate its 60th anniversary. The milestone has prompted questions as to whether a treaty negotiated in 1959 is capable of continuing to provide an appropriate governance framework for Antarctica.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Journal of Corporate Law Studies

Transnational corporations and modern slavery: Nevsun and beyond

Author(s): Akshaya Kamalnath

A recent decision of the Supreme Court of Canada Nevsun Resources Ltd. v Araya, has brought the issue of transnational corporations’ responsibility for human rights violations to the forefront in Canada. After critically examining the decision, this article aims to propose an effective legislative design for Canada. The article also examines another pertinent decision (this one from the UK), Vedanta Resources plc. v Lungowe in this regard. The proposals for effective legislation in Canada set out in this article will also be relevant for other countries considering the introduction of (or amending) modern slavery laws.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, International Law

Star Laws: The Role of International Law in Regulating Civil And Military Space Activities

Star Laws: The Role of International Law in Regulating Civil And Military Space Activities

Author(s):

There is some notion that outer space is a “Wild West”, or a lawless “final frontier”, but nothing could be further from the truth. The 1967 Outer Space Treaty, and the other core space treaties, apply to all activities in outer space, whether governmental or non-governmental. It is true that these treaties provide general principles, rather than detailed regulation of specific activities. However, together with national laws regulating space activities, these treaties provide a very clear legal framework for both military and civilian space activities. This chapter provides an overview of how this general legal framework ensures that space is well regulated for civilian and military uses of outer space, including how existing branches of international law also apply to activities in space. For military operations, the most important ones are the law on the use of force, the law of armed conflict, human rights law, and environmental law. The imperative is upon States to ensure a stable, secure environment, and to ensure the rule of law prevails, just as in all terrestrial environments.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Woomera Manual: Legitimising or Limiting Space Warfare?

The Woomera Manual: Legitimising or Limiting Space Warfare?

Author(s):

Military activities in outer space are governed by international law, and the applicability of the law on use of force and law of armed conflict to space is therefore uncontroversial. However, because space has many unique characteristics when compared with other environments, it is not always clear exactly how certain aspects of these bodies of law will apply. For example, at what point does an activity in space amount to a “threat to international peace and security”, or an “armed attack”, both of which would justify some form of forceful response? Where there is ambiguity, there is tension, which can lead to escalation and the risk of space warfare, or of terrestrial warfare in response to a space activity. In an attempt to provide some clarity, the Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Activities is being developed by a group of independent experts from around the world. This chapter tackles the question whether such a Manual has the effect of legitimising space warfare, or rather a restraining effect on the risk of space warfare, and on the impacts if it were to take place.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Vulnerability, Legal Need and Technology in England and Wales

Vulnerability, Legal Need and Technology in England and Wales

Author(s): Faith Gordon

This research explores legal need and legal advice in England and Wales, during the COVID19 pandemic. It uses a theoretical understanding of vulnerability to examine the ways in which this crisis has in practice exposed several pre-existing fragilities in the relationship between the state, the advice sector, and individuals who experience social welfare problems. Our research commences by exploring the concept of vulnerability. In this part, we discuss three things: firstly, the broad range of ways in which vulnerability is experienced by those experiencing social welfare-related issues, secondly, how the idea of vulnerability is often used under austerity-informed policies to identify a limited class of people who are in need ofsocial welfare, and thirdly, the vulnerability of the systemsthemselves which support those individuals through the provision of legal advice. Our research then considers the specific context of the COVID-19 pandemic: it interrogates how social distancing and lockdown measures, in combination with the threat of the virus itself, have compounded the existing fragilities within this relationship.

Drawing on policy documents, reports and three case studies accessed from law centres in England and Wales, it discusses the concept of legal need, and demonstrates how the pandemic has transformed the way that social welfare law needs are experienced, as well as impaired the ability of the sector to meet these needs. These case studies assist us in being able to critically consider the topics of vulnerability, changing needs and the role that technology is playing, and can play, during the pandemic and beyond. Lastly, on the basis of these findings, our research advocates a critical consideration of the sustainability and format of legal advice in addressing legal need in the post-COVID-19 landscape. Drawing on examples of technology being utilised in legal advice sectors in other jurisdictions; this paper considers the future potential of technology for addressing legal need in England and Wales. This is important given that the sector continues to be left vulnerable to funding cuts, and at the same time, society is predicted to experience a continued increase in legal need post-pandemic.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, International Law

Commercial and Military Uses of Space

The Province of all Humankind: A Feminist Analysis of Space Law

Author(s):

This edited book brings together a diverse range of chapters on space related topics. The authors included in this book are drawn from Australia and overseas, from academia, government, industry, civil society and the military. This book contains chapters that cover topics such as law, science, archaeology, defence, policy, and more, all with a focus on space. This edited collection is a timely international and interdisciplinary book, which addresses some of the contemporary issues facing activities in space and those attempting to understand, use and regulate the space domain. This edited book seeks to normalise the role of women as experts in the space sector, by not calling attention to the fact that all the authors are women – they are all experts in their respective fields who just happen to be women.  Bringing together these contributions in this book in turn promotes the inclusion of diversity in the space sector.  This edited collection is an opportunity to influence the development of the space industry – in terms of gender diversity, and diversity of disciplines and thinking – while it is in its formative stage, rather than trying to redress imbalances once they are entrenched in the industry.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

Populism, Backlash and the Ongoing Use of the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement System: State Responses to the Appellate Body Crisis

Populism, Backlash and the Ongoing Use of the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement System: State Responses to the Appellate Body Crisis

Author(s): Imogen Saunders

Since 2017, World Trade Organization (‘WTO’) Member States have been unable to reach a consensus on Appellate Body (‘AB’) appointments and reappointments. The United States is spearheading a populist backlash against procedural and substantive aspects of the dispute settlement system of the WTO. As a consequence of this, the AB is now facing an unprecedented crisis. The jewel in the crown of the WTO dispute settlement system will be missing: yet countries are still bringing complaints. This paper considers US actions through the framing of populism and backlash, and assesses responses from other countries.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Multilateral Human Rights System: Systemic Challenge or Healthy Contestation?

The Multilateral Human Rights System: Systemic Challenge or Healthy Contestation?

Author(s): Jolyon Ford

This essay explores some of the parameters and merits of a putative argument that the announcement of June 19, 2018 that the United States would withdraw from the United Nations Human Rights Council might most properly be understood as but one manifestation of a wider political backlash within the US (and indeed other Western democracies) against the multilateral human rights system epitomized by the Council. There are two prongs to this argument. First, populist-nationalist political sentiment at home simultaneously fuels and is fanned by strident high-profile diplomatic critiques (or even rejections) of global bodies such as the Council. Second, the nature and force of this backlash constitutes a systemic threat to the future of the post-1945 rules-based international order, especially since it comes mostly from the superpower whose values-based rhetoric and leadership has perhaps done most to advance the global human rights agenda in the modern era.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

The Populist Challenge and the Future of the United Nations Security Council

The Populist Challenge and the Future of the United Nations Security Council

Author(s): Jeremy Farrall

This article examines the potential impact of the populist challenge to International Law on the United Nations Security Council. The Security Council is often criticized as ineffective, unprincipled, and an anachronistic mechanism that reflects a power balance from the past, rather than the realities of today. The article argues that the rise of populism is likely to further erode the Security Council’s legitimacy and efficacy. At the same time, however, it emphasizes the need for greater nuance in the way that both the phenomenon of populism, as well as the relationship between national and international concerns, are understood and framed. Taking these complexities into account, the Article explores three scenarios that could result from an escalating crisis of Security Council legitimacy. The first involves reform and renewal. The second comprises retreat and realignment. The third encompasses reimagining the international peace and security architecture and creating something new.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: International Law

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