Publications

This is a searchable catalogue of the College's most recent books and working papers. Other papers and publications can be found on SSRN and the ANU Researchers database.

The Proper Role of Policy in Private Law Adjudication

Author(s): Darryn Jensen

The re-emergence in recent years of interest in the private law in and of itself, rather than as an instrument of extrinsic, regulatory goals, has called into focus the appropriateness of ‘policy-based’ reasoning in private law adjudication and rule formulation. While many have become accustomed to the idea that the courts both can and must resolve disputes in terms of community welfare or socio-economic considerations, more recent formalist, corrective justice-based accounts of the private law simply have no room for any policy or instrumental considerations; the private law is concerned only with the balance of justice between the parties to the dispute. To a large extent, the opposing views rest on deeper philosophical premises about the proper role of law and of the courts in society and have arisen in opposition to each other. The opposing camps thus tend to talk past one another in restating their respective views. In seeking to contribute to, and hopefully advance, this debate, we defend the thesis that direct recourse to considerations of the social, moral, or economic impact on society of a particular rule or ruling, as distinct from the policy of a legal rule or policy as the deeper values of society, is inconsistent with the fundamental characteristics and methodology of the private law and that this is not contradicted by the necessary role of final appellate courts in reformulating the law or by the inherently political and instrumental underpinnings of statutory private law.

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Centre: CCL

Research theme: Legal Theory, Private Law

ADJR at 40: In its Prime or a Disappointment to its Parents?

Author(s): Greg Weeks

The commencement of the ADJR Act represented a significant moment in Australian administrative law. This paper will discuss the impact of the ADJR Act and its continuing relevance.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Administrative Law

Global Artificial Photosynthesis: Transition from Corporatocene to Sustainocene

Author(s):

It is a profoundly socially transformative idea that in the future, every road and building on the earth’s surface, with the assistance of nanotechnology, will be undertaking photo- synthesis. Some direct implications of equitably distributing artificial photosynthetic technology across the globe include removing the need for centralised sources of food or fuel. Other indirect outcomes could include stabilisation of population growth (from increased education in developing nations), reduced opportunities for war or corruption and facilitation of progress towards cultures that encourage human flourishing and mental peace, as well as ecosystem sustainability. This can be characterised as a technology- driven transition from the Corporatocene to Sustainocene epoch. One approach to realising such a transition is a global project on artificial photosynthesis, inspired by other large scale scientific projects such as the Human Genome Project, the Large Hadron Collider, the Hubble Space Telescope. This approach has been the subject of collaborative publications and international conferences. Implicit in the task of creating a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis is the need to create a favourable governance framework, that is predicated on the consistent application of universally applicable principles.

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Centre:

Research theme:

Global Artificial Photosynthesis: Transition from Corporatocene to Sustainocene

Author(s):

It is a profoundly socially transformative idea that in the future, every road and building on the earth’s surface, with the assistance of nanotechnology, will be undertaking photo- synthesis. Some direct implications of equitably distributing artificial photosynthetic technology across the globe include removing the need for centralised sources of food or fuel. Other indirect outcomes could include stabilisation of population growth (from increased education in developing nations), reduced opportunities for war or corruption and facilitation of progress towards cultures that encourage human flourishing and mental peace, as well as ecosystem sustainability. This can be characterised as a technology- driven transition from the Corporatocene to Sustainocene epoch. One approach to realising such a transition is a global project on artificial photosynthesis, inspired by other large scale scientific projects such as the Human Genome Project, the Large Hadron Collider, the Hubble Space Telescope. This approach has been the subject of collaborative publications and international conferences. Implicit in the task of creating a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis is the need to create a favourable governance framework, that is predicated on the consistent application of universally applicable principles.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme:

Global Artificial Photosynthesis: Transition from Corporatocene to Sustainocene

Author(s):

It is a profoundly socially transformative idea that in the future, every road and building on the earth’s surface, with the assistance of nanotechnology, will be undertaking photo- synthesis. Some direct implications of equitably distributing artificial photosynthetic technology across the globe include removing the need for centralised sources of food or fuel. Other indirect outcomes could include stabilisation of population growth (from increased education in developing nations), reduced opportunities for war or corruption and facilitation of progress towards cultures that encourage human flourishing and mental peace, as well as ecosystem sustainability. This can be characterised as a technology- driven transition from the Corporatocene to Sustainocene epoch. One approach to realising such a transition is a global project on artificial photosynthesis, inspired by other large scale scientific projects such as the Human Genome Project, the Large Hadron Collider, the Hubble Space Telescope. This approach has been the subject of collaborative publications and international conferences. Implicit in the task of creating a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis is the need to create a favourable governance framework, that is predicated on the consistent application of universally applicable principles.

Read on SSRN

Centre:

Research theme:

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: Promoting Cooperation and Sustainability

Author(s): Molly Townes O'Brien

To combat the complex problem of world poverty, the United Nations General Assembly set out eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but as poverty decreases, energy consumption and pollution increase. Largely due to this complication, the MDGs were replaced in September 2015 with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs include new priorities such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, and peace and justice. Successful development involves more than avoiding poverty. To achieve the sustainable development goals, we have to know what they are and why they were introduced. We need to teach them to our students, who will carry the goals into their future work places.

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Centre: CIPL, PEARL

Research theme: Criminal Law, Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Social Justice, Legal Education

Social Security Overpayments and Debt Recovery: Key Developments

Author(s):

It is important to understand the history of the social security legislation, and other contexts, such as the language of 'error', 'overpayment', 'debt' and 'fraud', to fully understand the social and legislative basis of social security debt recovery today.

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Centre:

Research theme:

Challenging the Legal Profession A Century On: The Case of Edith Haynes

Author(s): Margaret Thornton

This article focuses on Edith Haynes' unsuccessful attempt to enter the legal profession in Western Australia. Although admitted to articles as a law student in 1900, she was denied permission to sit her intermediate examination by the Supreme Court of WA (In re Edith Haynes (1904) 6 WAR 209). Edith Haynes is of particular interest for two reasons. First, the decision denying her permission to sit the exam was an example of a 'persons' case', which was typical of an array of cases in the English common law world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in which courts determined that women were not persons for the purpose of entering the professions or holding public office. Secondly, as all (white) women had been enfranchised in Australia at the time, the decision of the Supreme Court begs the question as to the meaning of active citizenship. The article concludes by hypothesising a different outcome for Edith Haynes by imagining an appeal to the newly established High Court of Australia.

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Centre: CIPL, CLAH, PEARL

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Gender, Legal Education, The Legal Profession

Voting Rights and Australian Local Democracy

Author(s): Associate Professor Ryan Goss

ABSTRACT: In five of Australia’s six States, legislation governing the franchise at local government elections allows for voting rights based partly on property ownership or occupation, for votes for corporations, and for various forms of plural voting. There is no existing comprehensive nationwide catalogue and analysis of the legislation that underpins this phenomenon. This article fills the gap in the literature by providing that analysis. Part I provides a concise overview of the historical context in Britain and in Australia. Part II is the central contribution of the article, describing and analyzing the legislation across the six Australian States. Part II demonstrates the idiosyncratic complexity of local government franchises within and across the States. While this article’s primary goal is to critique the legislation as it stands, Part III concisely makes the case for reform of voting rights at local government elections, suggesting that the status quo raises concerns about democratic inequality.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Constitutional Law and Theory, Human Rights Law and Policy

Empty Rituals or Workable Models? Towards a Business and Human Rights Treaty

Author(s): Jolyon Ford

In this article, we do not seek to engage directly with ongoing discussions regarding the potential merits, and conversely the risks, of seeking to conclude a Business and Human Rights (BHR) treaty at all. Instead, our aim is to promote a greater focus, in the context of the BHR treaty debate, on regulatory effectiveness. That is, we believe that proposals for a BHR treaty should be assessed in terms of their likely efficacy, relative to other available forms of regulatory intervention, in advancing effective enjoyment of human rights in the business context. Whereas many contributions to the BHR treaty debate so far have explicitly or implicitly advocated one or other treaty model they have side-stepped the difficult question of how practically effective these models might be in influencing the conduct of duty bearers.

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Centre: CIPL, LGDI

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, International Law, Law and Technology, Law, Governance and Development, Private Law, Regulatory Law and Policy

Not-for-Profit Law and Freedom of Religion

Author(s): Pauline Ridge

The discussion in this chapter of particular intersections between English not-for-profit law and the right to freedom of religion highlights some problems in the existing law. The following suggestions for reform merit further attention. First, ‘religion’ should be defined as widely as possible in order to protect freedom of religion and to promote clarity in legal reasoning. Secondly, in relation to Article 14’s application to religious groups a conceptual framework is needed to determine when it is legitimate for the State to discriminate between religious groups by way of fiscal policy and to more clearly delineate the margin of appreciation afforded to the State when doing so.

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Centre: CCL

Research theme: Law and Religion, Legal History and Ethnology, Private Law

Court Records As Archives: The Need for Law Reform to Ensure Access

Author(s): Andrew Henderson, Kim Rubenstein

The Federal Court of Australia performs a fundamentally important role within Australia’s democratic system. It has served as a site for the disputation, negotiation and resolution of issues fundamentally important to Australian society. It does so in the context of a constitutional system affirming the principle of separation of powers and the rule of law, as a means of preserving and enforcing the rights of individuals and navigating the boundaries of the powers of the state. In that context, its records, gathered both through the internal workings of the court and through the cases that come before it, contain a narrative shaping our contemporary understanding of the rights of the individual and the role of the state. Despite the importance of its records in that narrative, the preservation and access to the Federal Court’s records continues to be seen through the lens of traditional understandings of the management of litigation. This paper explores the Federal Court’s role within the broader context of constructing our understanding of the roles and responsibilities of citizenship and illustrates the importance of the Court’s records as an archival resource. In doing so, it highlights the parallels and inconsistencies between traditional archival institutions and the Court in relation to selection, preservation and access to records.

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Centre: CIPL, CLAH

Research theme: Administrative Law, Constitutional Law and Theory, Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Gender, Legal Education, Legal History and Ethnology, Migration and Movement of Peoples, The Legal Profession

Delegated Legislation in Australia

Delegated Legislation in Australia, 5th edition

Editor(s): Dennis Pearce, Stephen Argument

Now in its fifth edition, Delegated Legislation in Australia provides updated and detailed coverage of all aspects of subordinate legislation, and is an essential reference for legislators, public officials at all levels of government, judicial officers and lawyers. It is the latest addition to the LexisNexis Black and Silver series.

Legislation made by various government and other bodies under the authority of an Act of Parliament far exceeds in volume the legislation made by Parliament in the form of statutes. Delegated Legislation in Australia includes a comprehensive overview of why and how delegated legislation is used to impose obligations on both citizens and business, and in what forms such legislation takes. Commentary is provided for each Australian jurisdiction as to the means used by Parliament to review the content of the legislation, and assess and compare the performance of each parliament.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Administrative Law, Regulatory Law and Policy

Connolly-FoundationsAPL

The Foundations of Australian Public Law: State, Power, Accountability

Author(s): Anthony Connolly

In The Foundations of Australian Public Law, Anthony J. Connolly brings together the two traditionally discrete areas of constitutional and administrative law to present Australian public law as a single, integrated body. Exploring the themes of state, power and accountability in Australia, the text also makes reference to the law of international jurisdictions, where students are informed by contemporary public law theory. Particular attention is also given to the rise of global public law and the increasingly cosmopolitan nature of the subject in Australia. A comprehensive companion website complements the theory and discussion throughout the text and includes chapter summaries, further readings and discussion questions to encourage extended student learning. Written by a leader in the field, The Foundations of Australian Public Law is a key text for students looking to gain a comprehensive understanding of public law across Australia's federal, state and territory jurisdictions.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Administrative Law

Draft Working Paper for a Research and Evaluation Report for the Bendigo Health–Justice Partnership: A Partnership between ARC Justice Ltd and Bendigo Community Health Services

Author(s): Elizabeth Curran

This report documents the reasons for health justice partnerships, the literature, the methodology, the field research which used a participatory action research approach with a continuous learning and development framework. This Draft Working Paper sets out the summary of qualitative and quantitative data, the findings, conclusions lessons and recommendation emerging from this longitudinal study on the Bendigo Health Justice Partnership, in advance of the Full Final Research and Evaluation Report which will be released in 2017.

ARC Justice (specifically one of its programs, the Loddon Campaspe Community Legal Centre (LCCLC)) and the Bendigo Community Health Service formed a partnership in 2013 to commence a Health Justice Partnership (HJP) in January 2014 to better reach those clients experiencing disadvantage.

ANU (through the author Dr Liz Curran) was commissioned to conduct empirical research and an evaluation of the pilot project's impact on the social determinants of health, its outcomes and the effectiveness of Health Justice Partnerships in reaching clients who would otherwise not gain legal help with a range of problems capable of a legal solution.

This Draft Working Paper is released, in advance of the Full Final Report, so that agencies, researchers and funders and policy makers developing or working in Health Justice Partnerships or multi-disciplinary practices can benefit and be informed by the research and evaluation given the wide range of issues emerging from the research canvasses while the Full Final Report is finalised.

The Full Final Research & Evaluation Report will be released in 2017 but, in the interim, people using SSRN can utilise the research for their work. This responds to the numerous requests to share the research at the earliest opportunity so as to inform service delivery and funding applications which may occur before the release of the Final Report.

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Centre:

Research theme: Health, Law and Bioethics, Human Rights Law and Policy, Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Law and Social Justice, Legal Education, The Legal Profession

The ‘Chaudhry Court’: Deconstructing the ‘Judicialization of Politics’ in Pakistan

Author(s): Moeen Cheema

The Supreme Court of Pakistan underwent a remarkable transformation in its institutional role and constitutional position during the tenure of the former Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iflikhar Muhammad Chaudhry (2005-2013). This era in Pakistan's judicial history was also marked by great controversy as the court faced charges that it had engaged in "judicial activism," acted politically, and violated the constitutionally mandated separation of powers between institutions of the state. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the judicial review actions of the Chaudhry Court and argues that the charge of judicial activism is theoretically unsound and analytically obfuscating. The notion of judicial activism is premised on the existence of artificial distinctions between law, politics and policy and fails to provide a framework for adequately analyzing or evaluating the kind of judicial politics Pakistan has recently experienced. The Supreme Court's role, like that of any apex court with constitutional and administrative law jurisdiction, has always been deeply and structurally political and will continue to be so in the future. As such, this article focuses on the nature and consequences of the Chaudhry Court's judicial politics rather than addressing the issue of whether it indulged in politics at all. It analyzes the underlying causes that enabled the court to exercise an expanded judicial function and in doing so engages with the literature on the "judicialization of politics" around the world.

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Centre: CIPL, LGDI

Research theme: Constitutional Law and Theory, Law, Governance and Development, Legal Theory

What Can We Legitimately Expect from the State?

Author(s): Greg Weeks

The recognition and enforcement of legitimate expectations by courts has been a striking feature of English law since R v North and East Devon Health Authority; ex parte Coughlan [2001] 3 QB 213. Although the substantive form of legitimate expectation adopted in Coughlan was quickly accepted by English courts and received a generally favourable response from public law scholars, the doctrine of that case has largely been rejected in other common law jurisdictions. The central principles of Coughlan have been rejected by courts in common law jurisdictions outside the UK for a range of reasons, such as incompatibility with local constitutional doctrine, or because they mark an undesirable drift towards merits review. The skeptical and critical reception to Coughlan outside England is a striking contrast to the reception the case received within the UK. This issue warrants the detailed scholarly analysis that it receives in this forthcoming book to be published by Hart.

This chapter considers the promises public authorities make to individuals and how they are received. It examines both the capacity of government to create expectations and the legitimacy of people entertaining firm expectations of government and considers the substantive enforcement of legitimate expectations, when government might be estopped from resiling from its representations and in what circumstances government may be liable for making negligent misrepresentations.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Administrative Law

Lessons Lost in Sentencing: Welding Individualised Justice to Indigenous Justice

Author(s): Anthony Hopkins

Indigenous offenders are heavily over-represented in the Australian and Canadian criminal justice systems. In the case of R v Gladue, the Supreme Court of Canada held that sentencing judges are to recognise the adverse systemic and background factors that many Aboriginal Canadians face and consider all reasonable alternatives to imprisonment in light of this. In R v Ipeelee, the Court reiterated the need to fully acknowledge the oppressive environment faced by Aboriginal Canadians throughout their lives and the importance of sentencing courts applying appropriate sentencing options. In 2013, the High Court of Australia handed down its decision in Bugmy v The Queen. The Court affirmed that deprivation is a relevant consideration and worthy of mitigation in sentencing. However, the Court refused to accept that judicial notice should be taken of the systemic background of deprivation of many Indigenous offenders. The High Court also fell short of applying the Canadian principle that sentencing should promote restorative sentences for Indigenous offenders, given this oft-present deprivation and their over-representation in prison. In this article, we argue that Bugmy v The Queen represents a missed opportunity by the High Court to grapple with the complex interrelationship between individualised justice and Indigenous circumstances in the sentencing of Indigenous offenders.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Criminal Law, Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Law and Gender, Law and Social Justice, Legal Education, The Legal Profession

Lawyers in the Shadow of the Regulatory State: Transnational Governance on Business and Human Rights

Author(s):

This paper examines the growth of transnational governance, and what it means for business lawyers advising multinational corporate clients. The term “governance” incorporates the network of actors, instruments and mechanisms that now govern transnational corporations, separate from the nation state. It is reasonable to expect that lawyers play an important role in advising business clients on how to effectively operate within this system. Indeed, many transnational legal instruments are intended to enhance clients’ business goals by enabling them to engage more efficiently in cross-border commerce. Other forms of regulation, such as human rights regulation, purports to impose requirements on companies that go beyond what is necessary to enhance cross-border commerce.

In this paper we discuss the transnational governance regime that has arisen to address the adverse human rights impacts of business activities. We focus in particular on the United Nations (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which were adopted by the UN Human Rights Council in 2011. We ask what if any role is there for lawyers in fostering acknowledgment and fulfilment of these responsibilities among clients? Is the duty to respect human rights a “legal” obligation in any sense? If a lawyer does provide advice, should it encompass only legal risks to the company that fall within the lawyer’s traditionally defined specialized expertise? Or should it go beyond that to include other concerns?

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Centre: CCL, CIPL, LGDI

Research theme: Law and Psychology, Legal Education, Private Law, Regulatory Law and Policy, The Legal Profession

2016_Gozdecka_Rights_Religious

Rights, Religious Pluralism and the Recognition of Difference: Off the scales of justice

Author(s):

Human rights and their principles of interpretation are the leading legal paradigms of our time. Freedom of religion occupies a pivotal position in rights discourses, and the principles supporting its interpretation receive increasing attention from courts and legislative bodies. This book critically evaluates religious pluralism as an emerging legal principle arising from attempts to define the boundaries of  freedom of religion. It examines religious pluralism as an underlying aspect of different human rights regimes and constitutional traditions.

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Centre: CIPL

Research theme: Human Rights Law and Policy, Law and Religion

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