This paper will examine the impact of the European Union upon citizenship, and will use the two cases of Brexit and stalled enlargement in south east Europe in order to study the partial, fragmentary and contested governance of citizenship in the europolity.
Citizenship and Europeanisation are the central conceptual motifs, and each is studied from a relational and contextual perspective. The paper seeks to place the provisions of EU law relating to EU citizenship into a wider political and socioeconomic context. The cases of Brexit and enlargement are set alongside each other in order to demonstrate the central importance of EU citizenship, as an enabler of personal freedom, and also to highlight how the denial of EU citizenship can lead to individual strategies of avoidance, as affected persons seek to acquire other citizenships which provide the lost benefits.
The paper highlights the parallels between EU citizenship and national citizenship, both offering a promise of equality, but a reality of differentiation and inequality.